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You can choose among various operators to structure your **Office Math** formula. All available operators appear in the lower part of the Elements pane. They are also listed in the context menu of the **Commands** window. All operators not contained in the Elements pane or in the context menu must be typed manually in the **Commands** window.

Open the context menu in the Commands window - choose

OperatorsChoose

View - Elements; then on the Elements pane selectOperatorsfrom the list box.

The following is a list of the available operators. An icon next to the operator name indicates that it can be accessed through the Elements pane (choose **View - Elements**) or through the context menu of the **Commands** window.

Limit

Inserts the **limit sign** with one placeholder. You can also enter **lim ** directly in the **Commands** window.

Summation

Inserts a **summation sign** with one placeholder. You can also enter **sum ** directly in the **Commands** window.

Product

Inserts a **product sign** with one placeholder. You can also type **prod ** directly in the **Commands** window.

Coproduct

Inserts a **coproduct symbol** with one placeholder. You can also enter **coprod ** directly in the **Commands** window.

Upper and Lower Limit

Inserts a range statement **upper and lower limit** for integral and summation with one placeholder. You can also type **from{} to{} ** directly in the **Commands** window. Limit statements must be combined with the appropriate operators. The limits will be centred above/below the summation character.

Integral

Inserts an **integral** sign with one placeholder. You can also type **int ** directly in the **Commands** window.

Double Integral

Inserts a **double integral** symbol with one placeholder. You can also type **iint ** directly in the **Commands** window.

Triple Integral

Inserts **a triple integral** sign with one placeholder. You can also type **iiint ** directly in the **Commands** window.

Lower Limit

Inserts a **lower limit** range statement for integral and sum with placeholders. You can also type **from {}** directly in the **Commands** window.

Curve Integral

Inserts a **curve integral** symbol with one placeholder. You can also type **lint ** directly in the **Commands** window.

Double Curve Integral

Inserts a **double curve integral** symbol with one placeholder. You can also type **llint ** directly in the **Commands** window.

Triple Curve Integral

Inserts a **triple curve integral** sign with one placeholder. You can also type **lllint ** directly in the **Commands** window.

Upper Limit

Inserts the range statement **upper limit** for integral and summation with placeholders You can also type **to ** directly in the **Commands** window. Limit statements can only be used if combined with the appropriate operators.

You can also add limits to an operator (for example, an integral) by first clicking the desired operator and then clicking the

limitsymbol. This method is faster than typing the commands directly.

The command **liminf** inserts the **limit inferior** with one placeholder.

The command **limsup** inserts the **limit superior** with one placeholder.

By typing **oper** in the Commands window, you can insert **user-defined operators** in Office Math, a feature useful for incorporating special characters into a formula. An example is **oper %theta x**. Using the **oper** command, you can also insert characters not in the default Office character set. **oper** can also be used in connection with limits; for example, **oper %union from {i=1} to n x-{i}**. In this example, the union symbol is indicated by the name **union**. However, this is not one of the predefined symbols. To define it, choose **Tools - Symbols**. select **Special** as the symbol set in the dialogue box that appears, then click the **Edit** button. In the next dialogue box, select **Special** as the symbol set again. Enter a meaningful name in the **Symbol** text box, for example, "union" and then click the union symbol in the set of symbols. Click **Add** and then **OK**. Click **Close** to close the **Symbols** dialogue box. You are now finished and can type the union symbol in the Commands window, by entering **oper %union**.

Limits can be arranged in ways other than centred above/below the operator. Use the options provided by Office Math for working with superscript and subscript indices. For example, type

sum-a^b cin the Commands window to arrange the limits to the right of the sum symbol. If your limit entries contain longer expressions, you must put them in group brackets, for example, sum-{i=1}^{2*n} b. When formulae are imported from older versions this is done automatically. To change the spacing (gaps) between the characters chooseFormat - Spacing - Category -IndicesorFormat - Spacing - Category -Limits. Additional basic information about indices is given elsewhere in the Help.

When you type information manually in the Commands window, note that a number of operators require spaces for correct structure. This is especially true when your operators are supplied with values instead of placeholders, for example, lim a-{n}=a.